STSK Consulting Ltd aims to help Engineers in their understanding of codes and solution to problems. In the Knowledge centre we provide information for every one to use and improve their technical knowledge and efficiency. In this page we aim to answer your technical questions that you may have, we also aim to compile questions that we have come across that you may find useful.

**In the calculation of crack width, what cover do we need to consider if the cover is more than nominal?**

For the purposes of calculating crack widths, as part of the design process, in accordance with Table 1 of BS5400, the nominal cover (including any additions for long service life) derived from BS8500-1 should be utilised, however it is recommended that the fixing tolerance (CC) is deducted from the nominal cover in order to undertake reinforcement design based on the limiting crack widths.”

**What is the min reinforced concrete pile embedment into the pilecap?**

**What is the horizontal load for pedestrian parapet that need to be considered?**

In accordance with Eurocode BS EN 1991-2 (2003) Clause 4.8 (1) Note 2:

UK National Annex to BS EN 1991-2 Clause NA2.3.2 states:

“The required class of pedestrian parapet for the particular situation should be chosen in accordance with EN 1317-6 and determined for the individual project. The characteristic value of forces transferred to the structure should be taken as the design loads given in EN 1317-6 for the relevant class of pedestrian parapet.

For the design of the supporting structure the minimum horizontal load should be taken as 1,6 kN/m, corresponding to Class E, for normal situations, and 3.0 kN/m 2 , corresponding to Class J, for exceptional situations where crowding can occur. The horizontal load should be applied at the top of the pedestrian parapet and should be considered to act simultaneously with the uniformly distributed vertical loads defined

in 5.3.2.1 of BS EN 1991-2.”

BD37/01 (or BS5400-2) Clause 7.1.2 states (Note this is superseded by the Eurocodes now):

“Effects due to horizontal loading on pedestrian parapets. In the design of the elements

of the structure supporting pedestrian parapets, the nominal load shall be taken as 1.4 kN/m length applied at the top of the parapet and acting horizontally.”

**Is there a guidance on modelling springs in integral bridges?**

**In Prestress Beams (Y beams) I have noticed horizontal cracks towards the end of the beams, are these defective beams.**

**How can we use simple calculations to calculate the embedment length of holding down bolts?**

**What is the BS code for steel design-buildings? Is BS 5950 superseded by Euro codes?**

**Are there any design charts for reinforced concrete column design to Eurocodes?**

**What is the minimum length of bolt protrusion beyond the nut after tightening in accordance with the Eurocodes?**

**Is there a maximum distance between reinforcement before they are considered lapped bars?**

These are very useful spreadsheets. Keep us informed and include for bridge design like RC Deck, Piers, Abutments and steel-concrete deck

Regards

MJO

OK thanks, I am working of few other spreadsheets, which I will upload as soon as they are complete. To get updates join us on twitter @stskconsulting